Kidney cancer, also known as renal cancer, is caused due to the uncontrolled and malignant growth of kidney cells that lead to the formation of tumors. The most common form of kidney cancer is in the tubules (the lining of tiny tubes) of the kidneys. This type of kidney cancer is known as renal cell carcinoma. Renal cell carcinoma occurs in 9 out of 10 cases of kidney cancer. Another common type of kidney cancer is urothelial carcinoma. This type of kidney cancer occurs close to the bladder area. Urothelial carcinoma is treated similarly to bladder cancer since it occurs in the kidney area where urine accumulates before passing to the bladder.
Kidney Cancer Statistics
- Among all types of cancer, kidney cancer is the 10th most common type of cancer.
- It has been estimated that there will be approximately 63340 new cases of kidney cancer in 2018.
- Approximately 1 in 63 people are diagnosed with kidney cancer over a lifetime.
- Nearly 42680 men will be affected by kidney cancer, while 22660 women will be affected by kidney cancer.
- 1 in 48 men is susceptible to the risks of kidney cancer, whereas 1 in 83 women are susceptible to the risks of kidney cancer.
- People in the age group 50 to 80 years are generally diagnosed with kidney cancer.
- It has been observed that the average age of people diagnosed with kidney cancer is 64 years. People below the age of 45 are rarely diagnosed with any type of kidney cancer.
- Approximately 74.1% of patients with kidney cancer have been known to survive for more than 5 years after being first diagnosed with this form of cancer.
- The 5-year survival percentage in the localized stage of kidney cancer is 92.6%. In the regional stage, the survival percentage is 66.7%, while in the distant stage the survival percentage is 11.7%.
Causes of kidney cancer
There are no known definite causes of kidney cancer. However, there are certain risk factors that can increase the probability of the disease.
- Age – The average age of kidney cancer patients is 50 years. The probability of kidney cancer increases with age. People above the age of 45 years are at a higher risk of kidney cancer.
- Gender – Men are more prone to having kidney cancer compared to women. The risk factor for men is higher than that for women.
- Obesity – Being overweight may lead to hormonal changes, which increases the risk of kidney cancer. Obese people are more prone to kidney cancer compared to those with average body weight.
- Smoking – Smoking increases the risk of kidney cancer. Compared to nonsmokers, smokers have a higher probability of having kidney cancer.
- Hypertension – High blood pressure makes a person susceptible to kidney cancer.
- Chronic kidney ailments – People who are undergoing dialysis treatments for chronic kidney disorders or for kidney failure have a high risk of kidney cancer.
- Inherited disorders – In some cases, inherited syndromes such as Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and tuberous sclerosis complex increase the risk of kidney cancer.
- Genetics – If any one of the parents or a sibling has kidney cancer, the probability of having kidney cancer increases.
- Occupational hazards – People who work in industries where they are constantly exposed to chemicals such as cadmium or specific herbicides can be prone to kidney cancer.