Overview – Glaucoma

Overview – Glaucoma

Constant high pressure inside the eyes is known to cause optic nerve tissue erosion and eventual optic nerve damage. Such a condition results in the eye disease called Glaucoma. The back of the eye is responsible for continually producing the aqueous humor fluid to fill the front of the eye. The fluid leaves the eye eventually through channels in the iris and cornea. In the event or blockage or partial obstruction of these channels, the intraocular pressure in your eyes may increase leading to nerve damage or glaucoma. Often, glaucoma may be caused due to poor blood flow, restricted drainage, dilating eye drops, elevated blood pressure, and reduced blood flow. If untreated, glaucoma may result in significant vision loss and even blindness. Additionally, some of the causes of glaucoma may include risk factors like age, ethnicity, family history, medical history, and the like. However, if detected early, you can try to prevent vision impairment and further progression. The treatment of glaucoma depends on the type and extent of the damage. Listed below are some of the things you need to know about glaucoma.

Open-angle glaucoma
Glaucoma has several types depending on the intensity of intraocular pressure. Open-angle glaucoma is the most common type that accounts for almost 90% of glaucoma cases. This type of glaucoma does not have any noticeable symptoms but causes gradual vision loss. The condition is a result of slow clogging of the drainage canals that are known to increase the pressure inside the eyes. While open angle glaucoma progresses slowly, it is a lifelong condition.

Angle-closure glaucoma
This is a relatively less common emergency condition that is caused when the aqueous humor fluid suddenly gets blocked and puts severe pressure on the eyes. This type of glaucoma rapid build-up in the eyes causes excruciating pain, blurred vision, and nausea and requires immediate medical attention.

Secondary glaucoma
Secondary glaucoma is the type that is caused by a side effect of another eye condition or injury. Usually, secondary glaucoma is caused in conditions like tumors, cataracts, inflammation, diabetes, or eye tumors or another eye condition. Some drugs may be responsible for this type of glaucoma.

Congenital glaucoma
As the name suggests, this is a type of glaucoma that children are born with. Those that have congenital glaucoma usually have a defect in the eyes that can prevent or delay normal fluid drainage. Children who are affected with the condition known to suffer from light sensitivity, excessive tearing, cloudy eyes, etc.

Normal tension glaucoma
Often, some people may damage their optic nerve even without increased eye pressure. While this may be a result of lack of adequate blood flow or sensitivity, the actual cause of the disease is not known.

Other types of glaucoma
All other types of glaucoma are basically variations of either open-angle chronic glaucoma or angle closure acute glaucoma. Their types usually depend on whether these occur in one or both the types. Other glaucoma types include pigmentary, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma, neovascular glaucoma, iridocorneal endothelial syndrome, and uveitic glaucoma.